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Demography of India - Population of India

¬¬India Position & Population Statistics
The Indian subcontinent located in the South Asia, North of Equator has the 2nd largest arable land population density of india is increasing.
India occupies 7th Largest land area of 3.28 million sq. km 2.4 % of world, and houses nearly a fifth of the world's population
The demography of india is India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. India has more population of india 2018,than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented.
Here are some facts about indian population, Factors for Population Distribution in India:
Physical factors such as Climate, Terrain and Availability of water
North Indian Plains, deltas and census of india Coastal Plains have climate suitable for agriculture and fertile plains hence have higher proportion of population
Socio-economic and historical factors:
Traditional settled agriculture and early human settlement has resulted in large population in river plains overpopulation india and coastal areas of India
Industrialization and urbanization:
Metro cities of India have high concentration of population due to industrial development indian population problem, and urbanization.
A large numbers of rural-urban migrants come to these towns
Phases of Growth of Indian Population
• 1901-1921
It is Referred as a period of stationary physical factors affecting distribution of population,
• phase of growth of India’s population
• Major causes → Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large, & inefficient distribution system of food
• 1921-1951
It is Referred as the growth of indian anthropology,
 period of steady population growth
The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate causes of overpopulation in india,
 than the previous phase
• 1951-1981
 It is Referred as the period of population explosion in India
 Caused by a rapid fall in the death rate but a high birth rate
Due to increased international immigration from Tibet, Bangladesh, effects of population growth in india,
 Nepal and Pakistan; India’s growth rate exploded
• After 1981 to present
 the growth rate has started slowing down gradually
 Due to decline in crude birth rate
 Better scientific developments & access to common man.
Over Population in India
Overpopulation refers to an undesirable condition where human population exceeds the available natural resources to feed and sustain itCAUSES OF OVERPOPULATION
The two main common causes leading to over population in India are:
The birth rate is still higher population explosion,
• than the death rate. We have been successful in declining the death rates but the same cannot be said for birth rates.
Early Marriage and Universal Marriage System: Even though legally the marriageable age of a girl is 18 years, the concept of early marriage still prevailing and getting married at a young age prolongs the child bearing age.
Poverty and Illiteracy: Another factor for the rapid growth of population is poverty. Impoverished families have this
Age old cultural norm: Sons are the bread earners of the families in India. This age old thought puts considerable impact of population growth on indian economy pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born. More the better.
Problems due to Over Population in India
 Unemployment :
o Generating employment for a huge population in a country like India is very difficult.
 Poverty :
o People have to spend a large portion of their resources for bringing up of their wards.
o It results into less saving and low rate of capital formation.
 Urbanization :
o The result is lack of transportation, communication, housing, education, healthcare etc
 Increase in crime rate :
o Unemployment and poverty lead to frustration and anger among the educated youth.
 Environmental Degradation :
o Rising rate of population growth exerts pressure on land. On the one hand, per capita availability of land goes on diminishing and on the other, the problem of sub-division and fragmentation of holdings goes on increasing.

Impact on Indian Economy
• Adverse effects on savings
• Unproductive investment
• Slow growth of Per Capita Income
• Underutilization of labor
• Growing pressure on land
• Adverse effect on quality of population
• Adverse social impact
Steps to Control Population in India:
The Government of India, politicians, policy makers should initiate a bold population policy so that the economic growth of the country can keep pace with the demands of a growing population.
Increasing the welfare and status of women and girls, encouraging male sterilization and spacing births, Free distribution of contraceptives and
Encouraging female empowerment, more health care centers for the poor, to name a few, can play a major role in controlling population.

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