vTomb Logo

Malaria Vector Surveillance, Prevalence, Diversity, Behavioural Patterns and Their Implications

Malaria Vector Surveillance, Prevalence, Diversity, Behavioural Patterns and Their Implications to Tourist Activities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Aims: Malaria poses a medical and public health challenge in Nigeria. The burden of the disease has been a major source of concern to tourists in Uyo. Knowledge on the biting behaviour and the Human Biting Rates (HBR) are needed to assess the epidemiology of the disease and in estimating the vector - human contact.
Study Design: A six months study was carried out in Uyo, Nigeria where no information exists on the major malaria vectors associated with human malaria. Sample collection was carried out between May and October 2013 using Knockdown and Human Landing Catches (HLC) techniques.
Methodology: Adults mosquitoes were collected in two areas in Ewet Offot Community. Nine households were randomly selected in each location using Simple Random Sampling Method. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex were further characterized and identified by a molecular method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Results: Two anophelines species were collected by the sampling methods consisting of 21(23.3%) Anopheles nili and 69(76.7%) Anophele gambiae complex. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based test on the An. gambiae complex identified 66(96.0%) as An. gambiae sensu stricto. The study also revealed that the resting behaviour of An. gambiae complex species in this area is endophilic whereas the resting behaviour of An. nili is exophagic/exophilic. The peak biting activity of An. gambiae complex species occurred at 11 pm (indoor) and 7 pm (outdoor) in July whereas that of An. nili occurred at 10 pm (indoor) and 6 pm (outdoor) in June. The Human Biting Rates (HBR) recorded for An. gambiae was higher than An. nili and the total number An. gambiae collected was more than An. nili.
Conclusion: Better understanding of the behaviour of the sibling species within the complex is important to help identify their roles in disease transmission and to facilitate vector control.

Biography of author(s)

Inyang A. Atting
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Mfonobong E. Akpan
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Nsima Ibanga G. Udoidung
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/22/43/127-1

 This site provides links to random videos hosted at YouTube, with the emphasis on random.

 The original idea for this site actually stemmed from another idea to provide a way of benchmarking the popularity of a video against the general population of YouTube videos. There are probably sites that do this by now, but there wasn’t when we started out. Anyway, in order to figure out how popular any one video is, you need a pretty large sample of videos to rank it against. The challenge is that the sample needs to be very random in order to properly rank a video and YouTube doesn’t appear to provide a way to obtain large numbers of random video IDs.

Alternative random YouTube videos generator: YouTuBeRandom

 Even if you search on YouTube for a random string, the set of results that will be returned will still be based on popularity, so if you’re using this approach to build up your sample, you’re already in trouble. It turns out there is a multitude of ways in which the YouTube search function makes it very difficult to retrieve truly random results.

 So how can we provide truly random links to YouTube videos? It turns out that the YouTube programming interface (API) provides additional functions that allow the discovery of videos which, with the right approach, are much more random. Using a number of tricks, combined some subtle manipulation of the space-time fabric, we have managed to create a process that yields something very close to 100% random links to YouTube videos.

 YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. YouTube allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to playlists, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.

 YouTube and selected creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services respectively offering premium and ad-free music streaming, and ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities. As of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet, just behind Google. As of May 2019, more than 500 hours of video content are uploaded to YouTube every minute.

 YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.
By using our services, you agree to our Privacy Policy.
Powered by Wildsbet.
vTomb © 2022

By using our services, you agree to our Privacy Policy.